I was amazed to read that the first evidence of spinal surgery was found in Egyptian mummies.  The first traction procedure was proposed by Hippocrates in 390 BC, and the first spinal surgery performed by Paulus of Aegina in 7th century. Imagine that! No anesthesia…  If this topic interests you can find the history of spinal surgery is this paper by Larry T. Khoo M.D., A. Fahir Ozer M.D., Murat Cosar M.D. Ph.D., Farbod Asgarzadie M.D.